Electric Scooters – Types of Batteries (Full Guide)

Electric scooters use one of the next sorts of batteries:

  • Lithium-ion – Li-ion
  • Lithium Polymer – LiPo
  • Lithium iron phosphate battery – LFP
  • Nickel Metallic Hydride Battery – NiMH
  • Sealed Lead Acid Battery – SLA

The most well-liked kind of batteries is lithium-primarily based, mainly the primary Three on the listing above. Sealed lead-acid batteries are used totally on low-pace e-scooters or the “regular” electrical scooter (those comparable in measurement to a gasoline scooter).

Razor makes use of a sealed lead-acid battery for instance whereas Qiewa (a way more highly effective e-scooter) makes use of a lithium battery.

Variations between electrical scooter batteries

However what’s the distinction between these batteries and which one do you have to select if you happen to determine to purchase a brand new electrical scooter.

Lithium-Ion vs. Lithium Polymer

The principle distinction between lithium-ion and lithium-polymer is vitality density. Lithium-ion has a considerably increased vitality density than lithium polymer.

One other distinction is that lithium-ion batteries endure from getting older which means they lose their capability sooner than lithium polymer batteries.

Lithium-ion batteries are sometimes cheaper than lithium polymer.

Right here is the total desk of comparability:

  Lithium-Ion Lithium-Polymer
Power Density Excessive Low
Effectivity (precise energy return for saved vitality) 85-95% 75-90%
Weight Heavier Light-weight
Worth Low cost Costly
Explosion danger Solely when overcharged (e-scooters chargers have overcharge safety) Low danger
Lifespan Can lose it is capability over time even when not used Do not lose as a lot capability as Li-ion batteries

Lithium batteries vs Sealed Lead Acid Battery

Sealed lead-acid batteries are cheaper than lithium batteries however they don’t supply as a lot effectivity, energy, and reliability as Lithium-ion batteries.

Depth of discharge is one other large distinction between these sorts of batteries. This tells us the proportion of battery that can be utilized with out damaging the battery. In lithium-ion’s case, the proportion that can be utilized is as much as 85% whereas lead-acid batteries shouldn’t be discharged previous 50% with a purpose to final for a very long time. The issue right here is that you might solely use half of the vary of the electrical scooter which isn’t handy. So you might be pressured to make use of extra and slowly harm your battery. That’s why solely cheaper variations of e-scooters use lead-acid batteries and excessive-finish ones use solely lithium.

Effectivity can also be a distinction, lithium-ion changing as much as 95% of the saved vitality to actual-world energy whereas lead-acid are within the vary of 80-85%. Resulting from this truth, lithium-ion batteries cost a lot sooner than lead-acid batteries. Razor, for instance, can take as much as 12 hours to cost whereas a median lithium-ion scooter takes about 2-Four hours relying on the battery capability.

Lifespan comparability is price contemplating as nicely as a result of lithium-ion will final rather more charging cycles than lead-acid batteries. A lithium-ion can final between 500-1000 cycles of discharge/cost whereas a sealed lead acid solely lasts between 200 and 300 on common.

However, to be honest with lead-acid batteries, they’re probably the most cheaper so even if you happen to change them extra typically than lithium-ion they are often price it.

Here’s a video evaluating these sorts of batteries:

LFP batteries

LFP stands for Lithium Iron Phosphate and has this good chemical system (LiFePO4) if there are scientists between us. There aren’t lots of electrical scooters utilizing this sort of battery however there are some.

The advantages that LFP supply is extra stability (when charging and thermal stability), security, and longer cycle life. It’s additionally supposed to withstand higher to getting older than different lithium-primarily based batteries.

If you’re taken with them have a learn on this hyperlink. Heads up, it’d get techy.

What about Nickel-Metallic Hydride?

Why are they the final on the listing? Properly, I do know for certain I’ve seen electrical scooters utilizing NiMh batteries, however I’m unable to search out one on Amazon now that makes use of them! I might solely discover an e-bike.

NiMH batteries have a excessive vitality density, typically exceeding the density of lithium-ion batteries. They’re additionally safer as a result of, within the worst case they pop, however don’t blow up like lithium-ion when overcharged. In the event you marvel if electrical scooter batteries explode test this text (and video) right here: do electrical scooters explode?

Why aren’t they extra widespread then? The primary drawback is the charging time, which is usually between 10-12 hours. That is thought of to be too lengthy for an electrical scooter particularly in case you are in a rush.

Additionally, they’ve a low voltage output. Evaluating to Li-ion that may ship 3.7 volts per cell, NiMH cells solely present 1.2 volts.

They’re additionally much less appropriate in chilly areas. Lithium-Ion have this downside as nicely to some extent however they do tolerate chilly temperatures pretty nicely. I don’t see greater than a 15% drop in vary with my e-scooter on a chilly 41 Fahrenheit (5 levels Celsius) day.

NiMH batteries are additionally greater and heavier than lithium-ion batteries and speaking about e-scooters, each pound counts.

Do lithium-ion batteries produce other cons?

They do have a pair. Or extra, however I don’t think about these necessary.

The principle ones are that they’re dearer (supply) than different sorts of batteries and topic to getting older. Even if you happen to don’t use them as a lot, they may slowly degrade over time. The easiest way to delay lithium-ion battery life is to retailer it in a cool place, with average humidity, and with not less than 40% cost. This scale back the getting older impact. (supply)

Different disadvantages, however not strictly affecting the shopper:

  • safety required when charging them with a purpose to forestall overcharging
    • all e-scooter have a charger with overcharge safety these days
  • transportation is tough and taking it on a aircraft might have restrictions. Learn this text if you happen to can take your electrical scooter on a aircraft
  • immature expertise

What’s the fee of electrical scooter batteries?

The typical price of a lithium battery is between $200-300. The value of the battery on common fashions is about 1/3 of the electrical scooter. Learn extra about batteries price for various fashions right here.

Charging the battery

If you’d like extra tips about charging the battery. Do and don’ts and in addition battery storage suggestions take a look at my different article right here.

Wrap up

So? Which one to decide on? I might go for an electrical scooter with a Lithium-Ion or a Lithium-Polymer battery. What about you? Do you will have any expertise with electrical scooter batteries?